Three main factors influenced the landscape of the Cultural Park of the Martín river throughout centuries: the lithological variety, the weather and human impact.
The area with the highest altitudes, to the south of the Park (Montalbán-Torre de las Arcas, Obón and Alcaine), features a humid and cold environment. Here, old and abundant reforestation pinewoods have proliferated, like in the Montalbán and Torre de las Arcas areas, together with other little woods of natural origin, like the one dominating the Guardias mountain in Alcaine. These pinewoods appear to be regularly disseminated with rockroses and ilex groves. An extended rockrose or ilex wood dominates the Muelas between Obón and Torre de las Arcas, surrounded by groups of growing pines.
The northern part of the Park (Alacón, Oliete, Ariño and Albalate del Arzobispo), with lower altitudes and a drier environment contrasts the south. The addition of anthropical action, which is more prominent and intensive in a milder environment, makes the land suitable to agriculture and stockbreeding. Here we find scrubs (fields of rosemary and thyme, dry pastures) whose ilexes indicate degradation. Worth mentioning also is the steppe area of "las Planetas" in Albalate del Arzobispo, with lygeum spartum and rest-harrow.
In order to recover degraded areas-those inaccessible to mechanical ploughs, and affected by erosion-a process a reforestation has started with the Aleppo pines. One example is the Pinarosa pinewood in Ariño, which exploits the ravines and shaded areas of the Arcos mountain range and its spurs. Another example is the Molares pinewood, which is on the valleys and slopes of the Seco river and in the close ravines between Oliete and Alcaine.
The Mediterranean/continental climate, due to the position of the Martín river valley in a mountain area not rich in hydro-resources , and with marked differences in temperature between night and day, allows junipers to thrive. We can see Phoenician junipers in different spots of the Park, including those that have adapted to steep rock passages. Less frequent but more impressive is the Incense juniper, which can be found throughout the Park, and whose noteworthy specimens also grow in San Pedro (Oliete) and in Dehesa (Alcaine), as well as in other places.
On the other hand, the vegetation of the river bank is rich, forming a narrow and discontinuous line on the side of the Martín river, where poplars, willows, ash trees, elms, beds of rushes and thorn bushes prevail. Noteworthy are the tamarisks at the end of the Cueva Foradada reservoir, constituting a little wood of great ecological importance, and many tributary ravines and ponds that feature abundant hygrophilous vegetation.
Another important feature are the "regular" vegetation areas, with riverbank cultivations (fruits and vegetables) and the dry soil plants ( grain , vines , olive and almond trees).